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Matthew Lipman 1923-2010
Skaperen av "P4C" død
Oyvind (Administrator) #1
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Subject: Matthew Lipman 1923-2010
Matthew Lipman – grunnleggeren av den moderne filosofi med barn-bevegelsen, eller «P4C» som det gjerne kalles, Philosophy for Children – døde 2. juledag 2010, 87 år gammel. Lipman, hans verker og hans institutt IAPC som han startet sammen med Ann Sharp, har siden starten på 70-tallet vært til stor inspirasjon for lærere og filosofer over hele verden som har arbeidet innenfor dette feltet. Her bringer vi en minnetale forfattet av nåværende ansvarlig ved IAPC, Joe Oyler.

[Image:]I am deeply saddened to announce that Dr. Matthew Lipman, creator of the Philosophy for Children movement and Professor Emeritus of Montclair State University, passed away on December 26, 2010 at his residence in the Green Hill Retirement Community in West Orange, New Jersey. Lipman was born August 24, 1923 in Vineland, New Jersey. He served in the U.S. Infantry from 1943‑1946 in France and Germany, and was awarded two bronze stars during the Second World War. His experiences helping to liberate concentration camps in Germany is recounted in his autobiography, A Life Teaching Thinking.

Lipman studied at Stanford, Columbia, the Sorbonne in Paris and the University of Austria, earning his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Columbia in 1954. His dissertation, later published as What Happens in Art (1967) drew on the work of John Dewey, with whom Lipman conversed, and who complimented the dissertation. Lipman became a Professor of Philosophy at Columbia and chaired the Department of General Education at Columbia in the 1950’s and 1960’s, during which time he also taught at Sarah Lawrence College and the City College of New York.

Lipman’s experiences teaching philosophy to college students and adult education students, and witnessing the political upheaval that took place on university campuses around the country in the 1960s, convinced him that learning to think critically, to inquire about philosophical questions and to form reasonable judgments should begin much earlier. In 1969, with the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities, he began writing his first philosophical novel for children, Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery, which was piloted in public schools in Montclair, New Jersey. In 1972 Lipman left Columbia for Montclair State College to further develop his ideas of what came to be known as “Philosophy for Children.” In 1974 he established the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) with co-founder Ann Margaret Sharp, and for the next three decades, Lipman became a national and a world leader in the fields of critical thinking, pre-college philosophy and educational reform.

Philosophy for Children became nation-wide movement, with workshops organized in every state through the National Diffusion Network of the Department of Education. The movement also spread around the world, with local and national organizations in over forty countries, and regional associations in Europe, Latin America and Australasia. Lipman’s curriculum has been translated into dozens of languages, and in 1985 the International Council for Philosophical Inquiry with Children was founded in Copenhagen.

Lipman’s academic career involved teaching courses in philosophy and education, writing the world’s first systematic pre-college philosophy curriculum, creating masters and doctoral programs in Philosophy for Children, conducting empirical research on children’s thinking and philosophical inquiry, founding the journal Thinking, conducting conferences and professional development workshops, acquiring research grants, and writing scores of books and journal articles. He retired from Montclair State in 2001 but remained an active scholar, publishing numerous articles and interviews, and writing his autobiography, which was published in 2008.

In 1952 Lipman married Wynona Moore (1932-1999), the first African-American woman to be elected to the New Jersey Senate (1971) and the Senate’s longest-serving member at the time of her death in 1999. The Lipmans had two children, Will, who died in 1984, and Karen, who lives in Georgia. In 1974, Dr. Lipman married Theresa Smith, who passed away in 2006.
This post was edited 2 times, last on 2010-12-27, 23:11 by Oyvind.
Oyvind (Administrator) #2
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New York Times har nylig publisert en nekrolog skrevet av Douglas Martin:

Matthew Lipman, Philosopher and Educator, Dies at 87
Published: January 14, 2011

It was during the contentious years of the Vietnam War that Matthew Lipman, a philosopher and educator, found that many Americans were having trouble presenting their views about the conflict cogently, and it distressed him.

Professor Lipman, who was teaching at Columbia University at the time, concluded that many adults could simply not reason well for themselves, and he feared that it was too late for them to learn. So he responded with a radical idea: to teach children philosophy — or specifically “the cultivation of excellent thinking” — beginning in pre-kindergarten and continuing through high school.

The idea clashed with the thinking of education theorists like Jean Piaget, who believed children were not capable of critical thinking before age 11 or 12. And educators were reluctant to cram another discipline into already full curriculums.

But beginning with a trial run in the Montclair public school system in New Jersey, Professor Lipman’s philosophy for children caught on, promoted by an organization he founded in 1974, the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children, at Montclair State University. The course spread in its original or derivative forms to more than 4,000 schools in the United States and still more in 60 foreign countries, its materials translated into 40 languages.

The institute’s program also inspired the formation of an international conference in 1983 and has been endorsed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Professor Lipman died on Dec. 26 in West Orange, N.J., the institute said. He was 87.

His initial focus was on teaching logic, but the curriculum soon embraced concepts like truth, justice and freedom. It turned out that the questions that gripped children were pretty similar to those that have long beguiled philosophers:

“I wonder if ghosts are real or unreal.”

“When Dad tells me to be good, what does he mean?”

“Why is time so slow sometimes?”

“Where did Grandpa go when he died?”

Gareth B. Matthews, an emeritus professor of philosophy at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, said in an interview on Wednesday that Professor Lipman was “the most influential figure” in helping youngsters develop philosophical thinking. He particularly praised Professor Lipman’s pedagogical approach.

That method involves children sitting in a circle and taking turns reading aloud from a work of fiction that is intended to stimulate philosophical discussion. The teacher directs the conversation at first, then lets students raise their own questions and answer them. Professor Lipman called the exercise a “community of inquiry.”

In the process, children cover much the same ground that philosophers have; in Professor Matthews’ phrase, they “recapitulate the history of philosophy.”

“They come up with ideas classical philosophers have come up with, and maybe even develop them in interesting ways,” he said.

Professor Lipman found that children could not only handle the challenge but also thrive on it. A 1983 study by the Educational Testing Service found that the more than 3,000 middle-school students in New Jersey who took the course demonstrated almost twice as much academic progress in a year as the students who did not take the course.

“The gains evidenced in the present study should enable students not only to deal more effectively with school tasks, but with the many problems that face the preadolescent in our complex society,” wrote Virginia C. Shipman, an official of the testing service.

Matthew Lipman was born on Aug. 24, 1923, in Vineland, N.J. He fought in Europe in the infantry during World War II and was awarded two Bronze Stars. He studied at several universities, earning his bachelor’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia, where he taught for 19 years.

In 1972 he left Columbia to become a philosophy professor at Montclair State College, and two years later, with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, he started his institute there. With Ann Margaret Sharp, the institute’s associate director, he produced novels, stories and manuals for use in the curriculum. Similar programs have been developed at a host of universities.

Professor Lipman also started the publication Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children.

Professor Lipman’s marriage to Wynona Moore, the first African-American woman to be elected to the New Jersey State Senate, ended in divorce. His second wife, Theresa Smith, died in 2006. He is survived by his daughter, Karen Lipman.

He began writing his first philosophical novel for children, “Harry Stottlemeier’s Discovery,” in 1969. (The title character’s name is a play on Aristotle.) Directed at 10-year-olds, the book uses classroom dramas to teach the laws of logic. For example, logic does not permit the inversion of a sentence like “All cucumbers are vegetables,” because “All vegetables are cucumbers” is absurd.

Harry, like his author, came to believe that the most important thing in the world is thinking.

“I know that lots of other things are also very important and wonderful, like electricity and magnetism and gravitation,” Harry said. “But although we understand them, they can’t understand us. So thinking must be something very special.”

A version of this article appeared in print on January 15, 2011, on page A24 of the New York edition.…?_r=1
This post was edited on 2011-01-15, 20:27 by Oyvind.
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